Juan Cole gives a really good historical synopsis of how Iraq is where it is today. The video above shows how the Al-Qaeda splinter group, the Islamic State of Iraq and Greater Syria (or the Levant), ISIS or ISIL, has taken over Mosul. It is important to understand that the fall of Mosul to the radical ISIS is a set of historical events that are not random. Mosul is Iraq’s second largest city and it has a population of 2 million. Well, it had a population of 2 million, now most of the population is fleeing. When the W administration went into Iraq, there was no connection between the country and Al-Qaeda. By going in to the country, Iraq was weakened on so many fronts that Al-Qaeda suddenly had a way in and a way to get support. This is how it happened: When democratization techniques are attempted after a system is torn down it can mean that, especially for Iraq, the socialist economy is destroyed. There was no building of private firms or commerce and the electoral system they put in place, because democracy amplifies diverse voices, only served to emphasize the religious, ethnic and sectarian cleavages. It evidenced the hollow regime of Saddam Hussein and highlighted the deep divisions throughout the country. This eventually led to the civil war in 2006-2007. Cole also talks about the indictment against Saudi Arabia for this current problem. The changed circumstances in Mosul show how Sunni fundamentalists in Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and in other parts of the Gulf are at the helm of this problem. The high petroleum prices have happened to inject trillions of dollars into the Gulf. That money has gone directly into the hands of people who admired Osama Bin Laden’s cause and those people are still totally fine with funding people like ISIS to take over Aleppo and Mosul from the Shiite population. Cole enumerates the mistakes of Nour al-Maliki and the Shiite political elite and also the historical events during European colonialism and post-colonialism which has gotten Mosul occupied. Read his expert analysis at his blog.